Oil Exploration and Crisis in the Niger Delta: The Response of Militia Groups

Paul Oghenero Okumagba


The Crude petroleum from the Niger Delta accounts for over 90 percent of the total exports and foreign exchange of the Nigerian state. The emergence of ethnic militia groups in the Niger Delta is traceable to the perceived exploitation of the multinational corporation and the Nigerian State. The exploration activities by the multinational corporation and the Nigerian State has resulted in environment degradation, contamination of soil and destruction of aquatic life, and water pollution which has been the main source of livelihood for the people of the Niger Delta. This has led to continued struggle for the emancipation of the people and development of the region. The objective of this study is to show how the failure on the part of the multinational corporations and the Nigerian State has given rise to conflict in the Niger Delta. The paper will also demonstrate how the development of the region through projects and programmes will help to reduce conflict in the region. The paper relied on the historical approach, which is based on secondary source of data by relying on journals, textbooks, and periodicals. The paper has demonstrated how the lack of strategic planning for exploration and production of oil, shrinking of the environmental space for farming and fishing activities, regional imbalance and skewed resource allocation and focus on development initiative though lack of proper funding, implementation of projects and programmes have been responsible for conflict in the region. Addressing the above will help in addressing the present crisis in the region.


oil, exploration, militia, exploitation, marginalization, emancipation, Nigerian State

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.11634/216825851403166


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Journal of Sustainable Society

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